Pancreatic function tests were performed in 11 adult cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with a fecal fat excretion of more than 10% during treatment with pancrease 2 capsules three times a day. These tests included urinary p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) excretion, fasting serum trypsin and pancreatic polypeptide (PP), and glucose and insulin in fasting and postprandial serum. Subsequently, the patients entered a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study to assess the effect of gastric acid inhibition by 20 mg omeprazole on fecal fat excretion. Adjunct therapy with omeprazole resulted in a reduction of fecal fat excretion in patients with residual pancreatic function. This improvement showed significant positive correlations with urinary PABA excretion and the increase in serum PP after the meal (P < 0.02 and P < 0.05), but not with the other parameters studied. Therefore, the addition of omeprazole to pancrease is most successful in CF patients with residual pancreatic function, determined by urinary PABA excretion or incremental PP.