Measurement of bone mass is important in determining the risk for fracture and in following the course of patients undergoing therapy for osteoporosis. Bone mineral densitometry (BMD) is a good predictor of fracture risk, but there is considerable overlap in BMD measurements between individuals with fracture risk and those without. In this study, computerized texture analysis of the trabecular pattern on conventional spine radiographs was used to evaluate bone structure as a determinant of fracture risk. Standard lumbar spine radiographs of 43 individuals were analyzed and compared with BMD measurements obtained with dual-photon absorptiometry. This method was more effective than BMD in differentiation of patients with fractures elsewhere in the spine from those with no fracture. These preliminary results suggest that this method of bone structure analysis, combined with BMD, may lead to a more sensitive and specific predictor of osteoporosis and risk of fracture.