RTG1 and RTG2: two yeast genes required for a novel path of communication from mitochondria to the nucleus

Cell. 1993 Jan 15;72(1):61-71. doi: 10.1016/0092-8674(93)90050-z.


The expression of some nuclear genes is sensitive to the functional state of mitochondria, a process we term retrograde regulation. Here we show that retrograde regulation of the yeast CIT2 gene encoding peroxisomal citrate synthase depends on a new class of upstream activation site element (UASr) and two previously unidentified genes, RTG1 and RTG2. RTG1 encodes a protein of 177 amino acids with similarity to basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that likely functions at the CIT2 UASr. RTG2 encodes a protein of 394 amino acids of unknown function. Cells containing null alleles of RTG1 and RTG2 are viable and respiratory competent. However, they are auxotrophic for glutamic or aspartic acid and cannot use acetate as a sole carbon source, suggesting that both the tricarboxylic acid and glyoxylate cycles are compromised. Thus, RTG1 and RTG2 are pivotal genes in controlling interorganelle communication between mitochondria, peroxisomes, and the nucleus.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Base Sequence
  • Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors
  • Cell Nucleus / metabolism
  • Citrate (si)-Synthase / genetics
  • Citrate (si)-Synthase / metabolism
  • Cloning, Molecular
  • DNA, Fungal / metabolism
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics*
  • Fungal Proteins / genetics*
  • Fungal Proteins / metabolism
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal
  • Genes, Fungal*
  • Genes, Regulator*
  • Glycerol / metabolism
  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • Microbodies / enzymology
  • Mitochondria / metabolism
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Mutation
  • Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae / enzymology
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae / genetics*
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae / growth & development
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins*
  • Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
  • Transcription Factors / genetics
  • Transcription Factors / metabolism


  • Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors
  • DNA, Fungal
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Fungal Proteins
  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • RTG1 protein, S cerevisiae
  • RTG2 protein, S cerevisiae
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins
  • Transcription Factors
  • Citrate (si)-Synthase
  • Glycerol

Associated data

  • GENBANK/L33702
  • GENBANK/L33703
  • GENBANK/L33704
  • GENBANK/L33705
  • GENBANK/L33706
  • GENBANK/L33707
  • GENBANK/L33708
  • GENBANK/L33709
  • GENBANK/M97690
  • GENBANK/M97691