Autologous bone marrow transplant in acute myeloid leukemia in first remission

J Clin Oncol. 1993 Feb;11(2):314-9. doi: 10.1200/JCO.1993.11.2.314.


Purpose: The Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group conducted a prospective study of postremission high-dose chemotherapy and autologous bone marrow transplantation (autoBMT) in a group of uniformly treated adults with de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML) to evaluate whether intensive, myeloablative therapy in first complete remission (CR) could improve the disease-free survival.

Patients and methods: After initial CR was induced by the combination of daunorubicin, cytarabine, and thioguanine, patients not eligible for allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (alloBMT) were offered autoBMT. Within a median of 2 months after CR, and without intervening postremission therapy, bone marrow was obtained, purged by exposure to 4-hydroperoxycyclophosphamide (4-HC), and cryopreserved. High-dose therapy consisted of oral busulfan over 4 days (16 mg/kg total) followed by intravenous (IV) cyclophosphamide 50 mg/kg daily for 4 days. The cryopreserved marrow was then reinfused.

Results: Of the 39 patients scheduled for autoBMT, four relapsed before transplantation. Two of the 35 (6%) transplant patients died of transplant-related complications, and 11 (33%) relapsed a median of 8 months after marrow reinfusion. No relapse has occurred after 24 months posttransplant. With a median follow-up of 31 months, the median disease-free survival period for all 39 patients has not been reached; however, 54% +/- 16% of patients are projected to be alive and disease-free at 3 years.

Conclusion: Long-term, disease-free survival after autoBMT in AML seems to be better than the outcome after conventional-dose postremission therapy and rivals the results of alloBMT.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use
  • Bone Marrow Purging
  • Bone Marrow Transplantation* / methods
  • Cryopreservation
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / drug therapy
  • Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / surgery*
  • Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Acute / drug therapy
  • Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Acute / surgery*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Pilot Projects
  • Prospective Studies
  • Remission Induction
  • Survival Analysis
  • Transplantation, Autologous
  • Transplantation, Homologous
  • Treatment Outcome