Two different cell types were identified in the thalamus of galago and Tupaia by using antibodies to two calcium binding proteins, calbindin and parvalbumin. In each species studied, the lateral geniculate nucleus consists of six layers, two of which have smaller relay cells. Previous studies have shown that the small cell layers receive fibers from the superior colliculus and project to the superficial layers of the striate cortex. These are the only geniculate layers that react to a calbindin antibody but not parvalbumin. The ventral posterior nucleus was included in the study and the results for both nuclei show that calbindin is a marker for thalamic cells that receive small fibers and project to superficial layers of koniocortex.