The lateral ventricle of the brain may be an immunoprivileged site for viable allografts. Allotransplanted parathyroid tissue from histoincompatible ACI rats survived and remained functional for more than 3 months in the cerebroventricles of recipient F344 rats. Microscopic examination proved that the allotransplanted parathyroid tissues retained normal histological features. In sharp contrast, when the parathyroid was placed beneath the renal capsule the allografted parathyroid tissue uniformly lost its capacity to liberate parathyroid hormone within one month, and only residual scar tissue remained at the transplantation site. After allotransplantation of parathyroid tissue into the cerebroventricle, the serum concentrations of both Ca++ and parathyroid hormone were maintained at levels similar to those before parathyroidectomy, until the time of sacrifice. During the 3-month period of post-transplantation observation, no neurological symptoms were noted in any of the F344 rats.