Velo-cardio-facial syndrome: a review of 120 patients

Am J Med Genet. 1993 Feb 1;45(3):313-9. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.1320450307.


A series of earlier reports has described the velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS), a syndrome of multiple anomalies including cleft palate, heart malformations, facial characteristics, and learning disabilities. The patients reported previously were primarily ascertained from a craniofacial program at a large tertiary medical center. Recent reports, including a companion paper in this issue, suggest that this common syndrome of clefting is also a common syndrome of congenital heart defect (CHD) which is expressed as familial examples of DiGeorge sequence. Appreciation of more severely affected cases of VCFS and the detection of mild expressions have led to a broadening of the phenotypic spectrum of the syndrome. The purpose of this report is to describe the full spectrum of VCFS, including several new manifestations and to compare the VCFS phenotype with published cases of "familial DiGeorge sequence" which are now thought to represent examples of VCFS.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Abnormalities, Multiple / diagnosis
  • Abnormalities, Multiple / genetics*
  • Adolescent
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Cleft Palate / genetics*
  • Face / abnormalities*
  • Female
  • Heart Defects, Congenital / genetics*
  • Humans
  • Learning Disabilities / genetics
  • Male
  • Phenotype
  • Syndrome