A successfully treated case of Salmonella infection of the thoracic aorta is described. Salmonella enteritidis was isolated from blood cultures and from operative cultures of the aorta. Computed tomography suggested the site of infection, and the resection of the thoracic aortic aneurysm with specific antibiotic therapy resulted in a satisfactory outcome. Although once invariably fatal, improved diagnostic roentgenographic techniques, more potent antibiotics, and surgical advances have resulted in at least 45 reported survivors over the last 15 years. The pathogenesis, clinical and laboratory characteristics, and the treatment of aortitis due to Salmonella species are reviewed in 98 cases reported in the English-language literature since 1948. Early diagnosis and a combination of prompt surgical intervention and antibiotic therapy are essential for survival.