Use of intraosseous infusion in the pediatric trauma patient

J Pediatr Surg. 1993 Feb;28(2):158-61. doi: 10.1016/s0022-3468(05)80263-5.


Intraosseous infusions (IO) are frequently used for gaining rapid vascular access in critically ill children. Few studies exist evaluating the efficacy of this procedure in the injured child. The objective of this study was to describe one pediatric institution's experience with the procedure of IO in young trauma victims. This study evaluated indications, insertion sites, complications, infused pharmacological agents, age, injury severity, and outcome. Fifteen patients received IO placement for cardiopulmonary arrest, seven for hypovolemic shock, and five for neurological compromise. Patient ages ranged from 3 months to 10 years (mean, 2.9 years). Twenty-nine IO lines were attempted in the tibia and three in the femur. Four of 32 attempts were unsuccessful. Of 32 attempts at IO placement (5 patients received multiple attempts), 15 were started in the prehospital setting and 17 in the emergency department. Multiple resuscitation medications as well as large colloid, crystalloid, and blood boluses were successfully infused. Seven of the 27 patients survived without observed IO-related complications. This study supports the use of IO infusion by prehospital as well as hospital personnel in the initial resuscitation of critically injured children. IO has a been established as a rapid, safe, and simple method of obtaining short term vascular access in both critically ill and injured children. This route deserves primary consideration as an alternate route for fluid resuscitation in pediatric trauma patients regardless of age. IO should be placed without delay when venous access is not rapidly obtainable.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

MeSH terms

  • Blood Transfusion / instrumentation
  • Blood Transfusion / methods
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Colloids / administration & dosage
  • Colloids / therapeutic use
  • Crystalloid Solutions
  • Emergency Medical Services / methods
  • Emergency Medical Services / standards
  • Emergency Service, Hospital / standards
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Hospitals, Pediatric
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infusions, Intraosseous / adverse effects
  • Infusions, Intraosseous / methods
  • Infusions, Intraosseous / standards*
  • Injury Severity Score
  • Isotonic Solutions
  • Multiple Trauma / classification
  • Multiple Trauma / mortality
  • Multiple Trauma / therapy*
  • Ohio / epidemiology
  • Plasma Substitutes / administration & dosage
  • Plasma Substitutes / therapeutic use
  • Resuscitation / instrumentation
  • Resuscitation / methods*
  • Survival Rate
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Colloids
  • Crystalloid Solutions
  • Isotonic Solutions
  • Plasma Substitutes