Projections of hypertension-related renal disease in middle-aged residents of the United States

JAMA. 1993 Mar 10;269(10):1272-7.


Objective: To establish nationwide projections for hypertension-related renal disease among middle-aged residents of the United States and compare disease burden in demographic subgroups.

Design: Integrated analysis of data from the US Census, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey of 1976 through 1980 (NHANES II), the 1971 through 1975 NHANES I Epidemiologic Follow-up Study, the Hypertension Detection and Follow-up Program trial, and the US Renal Data System.

Population: African-American and white residents of the United States, aged 30 to 69 years.

Main outcome measures: Incidence rates and counts of hypertension, hypertension-related hypercreatinemia, and hypertension-related end-stage renal disease (ESRD).

Results: Each year, approximately 1.8 million middle-aged Americans develop hypertension, 140,000 develop hypertension-related hypercreatinemia, and 5300 develop hypertension-related ESRD. African Americans are at increased risk for hypertension (relative risk [RR], 1.6; population-attributable risk [PAR], 5%), hypercreatinemia if hypertensive (RR, 2.4; PAR, 18%), ESRD if hypertensive with hypercreatinemia (RR, 2.7; PAR, 32%), and hypertension-related ESRD overall (RR, 8.0; PAR, 44%). Compared with women, men are at increased risk for hypertension (RR, 1.3; PAR, 13%) and hypertension-related ESRD (RR, 1.6; PAR, 23%). Most cases of hypercreatinemia in hypertensives (73%) occur among those with mild hypertension.

Conclusions: Progression to ESRD is rare in persons with hypertension-related renal disease, and factors other than blood pressure probably play an important role. A large proportion of hypertension-related renal disease cases occur among population subgroups considered to be at low risk. Interventions that favorably influence factors associated with the progression of hypertension-related renal disease in African Americans, in men, and in persons with mild hypertension, hold the greatest potential for reducing the population burden of hypertension-related ESRD.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • African Continental Ancestry Group
  • Aged
  • Creatinine / blood
  • Data Collection
  • European Continental Ancestry Group
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / epidemiology
  • Hypertension / ethnology
  • Hypertension / physiopathology*
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / epidemiology*
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / ethnology
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / physiopathology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Risk Factors
  • United States / epidemiology


  • Creatinine