Single- and multiple-dose pharmacokinetics of Nicoderm (Nicotine Transdermal System)

J Clin Pharmacol. 1993 Feb;33(2):169-74. doi: 10.1002/j.1552-4604.1993.tb03939.x.


The pharmacokinetics and tolerability of single and multiple applications of Nicotine Transdermal Systems (NTS), designed to deliver 14 mg of nicotine per 24 hours, were investigated in 20 healthy adult male smokers. After a single application, mean Cmax and tmax for plasma nicotine were 12.2 ng/mL and 4.4 hours, respectively. Plasma nicotine concentrations rose rapidly and then remained steady between 12 and 24 hours after application. The apparent nicotine half-life (t1/2) after system removal was 3.2 hours. Steady state was attained by the second day of multiple application, and mean steady-state nicotine Cavg was 25% higher on day 5 compared with the first NTS application. Steady-state plasma cotinine was reached by the fourth day of multiple application and, as with nicotine, Cavg and Cmax increased, tmax decreased, and t1/2 did not change compared with single application. The mean ratios of cotinine-to-nicotine area under the curve (AUC) values for single and multiple NTS applications were 14.0 and 15.8, respectively. The pharmacokinetics of nicotine and cotinine were linear between single and multiple NTS applications. The nicotine transdermal systems were generally well tolerated.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Cutaneous
  • Adult
  • Blood Pressure / drug effects
  • Cotinine / blood
  • Cotinine / pharmacokinetics
  • Heart Rate / drug effects
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Nicotine / administration & dosage*
  • Nicotine / pharmacokinetics*
  • Smoking
  • Smoking Cessation / methods


  • Nicotine
  • Cotinine