The development and application of a carotenoid database for fruits, vegetables, and selected multicomponent foods

J Am Diet Assoc. 1993 Mar;93(3):318-23. doi: 10.1016/0002-8223(93)91559-9.


A carotenoid database for individual and multicomponent foods has been compiled that contains values for the five most common carotenoids (alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein) in 2,458 fruits, vegetables, and multicomponent foods containing fruits and vegetables. The database was used to estimate intakes of specific carotenoids for 19- to 50-year-old women (n = 1,102), using food consumption data obtained from dietary recalls in the US Department of Agriculture Continuing Survey of Food Intake by Individuals, 1986. The major contributors of alpha-carotene were carrots consumed as a single food or as an ingredient in multicomponent foods. Carrots, cantaloupe, and broccoli were the main sources of beta-carotene. Orange juices and blends, oranges, and tangerines were important contributors of beta-cryptoxanthin. Tomatoes and tomato products consumed as single foods or as ingredients in multicomponent foods provided most of the dietary lycopene. Contributors of lutein + zeaxanthin included collard, mustard, or turnip greens; spinach; and broccoli. The per capita consumption of total carotenoids (the sum of the five specific carotenoids) among these women was approximately 6 mg/day.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Carotenoids / administration & dosage*
  • Carotenoids / analogs & derivatives
  • Carotenoids / analysis
  • Cryptoxanthins
  • Databases, Factual*
  • Diet*
  • Female
  • Food Analysis
  • Fruit / chemistry*
  • Humans
  • Lutein / administration & dosage
  • Lutein / analysis
  • Lycopene
  • Middle Aged
  • Vegetables / chemistry*
  • Xanthophylls
  • beta Carotene


  • Cryptoxanthins
  • Xanthophylls
  • beta Carotene
  • Carotenoids
  • alpha-carotene
  • Lycopene
  • Lutein