Renal stones containing calcium can occur in patients with type 1 glycogen storage disease. We studied 11 patients with glycogen storage disease. Five patients had renal calculi, nephrocalcinosis, or both, and five had hypercalciuria. Serum levels of calcium, phosphorus, parathyroid hormone, and urate were normal. Serum levels of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D were elevated in each patient. None of the patients had a metabolic acidosis, but all nine who were tested had evidence of impaired acid excretion. In response to an acid load, eight of the nine patients had subnormal titratable acid excretion, and nine had subnormal ammonia excretion; six of nine patients were unable to secrete hydrogen ions in response to bicarbonate administration. These data indicate that patients with type 1 glycogen storage disease have an incomplete form of distal renal tubular acidosis. This may be the cause of hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis in these patients.