Using monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) recognizing either the core protein or the heparan sulfate (HS) side chain of human GBM heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG), we investigated their glomerular distribution on cryostat sections of human kidney tissues. The study involved 95 biopsies comprising twelve different glomerulopathies. Four normal kidney specimens served as controls. A homogenous to linear staining of the GBM was observed in the normal kidney with anti-HSPG-core mAb (JM-72) and anti-HS mAb (JM-403). In human glomerulopathies the major alteration was a segmental or total absence of GBM staining with anti-HS mAb JM-403, which is most pronounced in lupus nephritis, membranous glomerulonephritis (GN), minimal change disease and diabetic nephropathy, whereas the HSPG-core staining by mAb JM-72 was unaltered. In addition we found HSPG-core protein in the mesangial matrix when this was increased in membranoproliferative GN Type I, Schönlein-Henoch GN, IgA nephropathy, lupus nephritis, diabetic nephropathy and in focal glomerulosclerosis. Also staining with the anti-HS mAb JM-403 became positive within the mesangium, although to a lesser extent. Furthermore, amyloid deposits in AL and AA amyloidosis clearly stained with anti-HSPG-core mAb JM-72, and to a lesser degree with anti-HS mAb JM-403. Finally, in membranous GN (stage II and III), the GBM staining with anti-HSPG-core mAb JM-72 became irregular or granular, probably related to the formation of spikes. In conclusion, major alterations were observed in the glomerular distribution of HS and HSPG-core in various human glomerulopathies. The mAbs can be useful to further delineate the significance of HSPG and HS for glomerular diseases.