In order to understand the mechanism of acute renal failure frequently observed in severe acute pancreatitis, renal microcirculation and renal hemodynamics were investigated during experimental acute pancreatitis in dogs induced by autologous bile and trypsin mixture into the pancreatic duct. Renal tissue blood flow (hydrogen gas clearance method), renal arterial blood flow, and cardiac output (transonic blood flow meter) were each measured for 5 h after induction of pancreatitis. The effect on renal hemodynamics of a new synthesized protease inhibitor--E-3123; 4-(2-succinimidoethylthio)phenyl-4-quanidinobenzoate methane sulfonate--intravenously infused at the rate of 3 mg/kg/h was also investigated. The mean blood pressure and pulse pressure decreased after induction of pancreatitis. Renal microcirculation and renal artery blood flow decreased during the experiment. However, in dogs with treated by E-3123, renal microcirculation was preserved during the first hour of the experiment and decreased gradually afterward, but it was significantly higher than that of the dogs without E-3123 during 3-5 h. The mean blood pressure and pulse pressure were preserved nearly at preoperative levels during the experimental period. We concluded that renal microcirculation decreased concomitantly with a deterioration of acute pancreatitis, and that the new pancreatic protease inhibitor E-3123 may have some beneficial effect to improve renal hemodynamics in the early period of acute pancreatitis.