Development during adolescence. The impact of stage-environment fit on young adolescents' experiences in schools and in families

Am Psychol. 1993 Feb;48(2):90-101. doi: 10.1037//0003-066x.48.2.90.


Although most individuals pass through adolescence without excessively high levels of "storm and stress," many do experience difficulty. Why? Is there something unique about this developmental period that puts adolescents at risk for difficulty? This article focuses on this question and advances the hypothesis that some of the negative psychological changes associated with adolescent development result from a mismatch between the needs of developing adolescents and the opportunities afforded them by their social environments. It provides examples of how this mismatch develops in the school and in the home and how it is linked to negative age-related changes in early adolescents' motivation and self-perceptions. Ways in which more developmentally appropriate social environments can be created are discussed.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Educational Status
  • Family / psychology*
  • Humans
  • Internal-External Control
  • Personality Development*
  • Psychology, Adolescent*
  • Social Environment*