Application of the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin to the rat gustatory cortex before and during training impairs conditioned taste aversion (CTA) to saccharin. No behavioral impairment is observed if the inhibitor is applied to an adjacent cortical area or to one cortical hemisphere only. The consumption of saccharin and of total fluid, as well as behavioral recognition of saccharin, is not affected. Preexposure of rats to saccharin several days before training markedly inhibits CTA to that taste. Injection of anisomycin to the gustatory cortex immediately prior to the preexposure period attenuates the latent inhibition. These results suggest that protein synthesis in the gustatory cortex is required for normal acquisition of the memory of taste.