Colony stimulating factors, cytokines and monocyte-macrophages--some controversies

Immunol Today. 1993 Jan;14(1):18-24. doi: 10.1016/0167-5699(93)90319-G.


In the literature concerning induction of monocyte-macrophage inflammatory mediators in vitro by colony stimulating factors, IFN-gamma and TGF-beta, there are many conflicting observations; likewise there is disagreement when the regulation of the synthesis of colony stimulating factors by cytokines is examined. Here, John Hamilton attempts to identify unifying concepts from the conflicting data. He goes on to discuss the experimental variables that have led to the current confusion and to assess the significance of the in vitro studies to physiology and pathology.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Colony-Stimulating Factors / immunology*
  • Cytokines / immunology*
  • Humans
  • Inflammation / etiology
  • Macrophages / immunology
  • Mice
  • Monocytes / immunology


  • Colony-Stimulating Factors
  • Cytokines