Use of merocyanine (MC540) in quantifying lipid domains and packing in phospholipid vesicles and tumor cells

Biochim Biophys Acta. 1993 Feb 23;1146(1):136-44. doi: 10.1016/0005-2736(93)90348-4.


The fluorescent probe merocyanine (MC540) reports qualitatively on several membrane events. Here we demonstrate that MC540 fluorescence can quantify the degree of coexisting liquid-crystalline and gel states in mixed monotectic phosphatidylcholine (PC) bilayers. The probe exhibits disparate fluorescence wavelength maximas and and intensities when incorporated into liquid-crystalline and gel state membranes. The fluorescence measurements partitioning of the EPR spin probe TEMPO between the aqueous environment and the membrane fluid phase. While both techniques can accurately assess the phase transition of synthetic PCs, only MC540 can distinguish between liquid-crystalline phases of different composition. MC540 fluorescence for single-component PC bilayers correlates quantitatively with estimates of the area/molecule determined from surface area/pressure isotherms of lipid monolayers, whereas partitioning of TEMPO fails to assess the relative degree of lipid packing in various fluid state membranes. Additionally, MC540 fluorescence characterizes the interaction of cholesterol with membranes made from condensable (18:0, 18:1-PC) and non-condensable (18:0, 22:6-PC) lipids. Finally MC540 distinguishes tumor cell membranes differing only in the amount of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Thus we conclude that MC540 can be used quantitatively to study phospholipid packing and membrane phases with lipid vesicles and to sense subtle differences in the arrangement of phospholipids in biological membranes.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • 1,2-Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine / chemistry
  • Animals
  • Cyclic N-Oxides
  • Docosahexaenoic Acids / analysis*
  • Fluorescent Dyes*
  • Gels
  • Lipid Bilayers / chemistry*
  • Mice
  • Phosphatidylcholines / chemistry
  • Phospholipids / chemistry*
  • Pyrimidinones*
  • Tumor Cells, Cultured / chemistry*


  • Cyclic N-Oxides
  • Fluorescent Dyes
  • Gels
  • Lipid Bilayers
  • Phosphatidylcholines
  • Phospholipids
  • Pyrimidinones
  • Docosahexaenoic Acids
  • 1,2-Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine
  • merocyanine dye