Meconium-stained amniotic fluid was recently reported to be significantly correlated with a higher incidence of otitis media during infancy. In order to verify this connection, a case-control study was performed on 71 pairs of infants, with and without meconium aspiration, matched for gestational age, birth weight and sex. Data were collected by questionnaire or telephone, the response rate being 88.7%. No significant difference in incidence of otitis media between the two groups was observed. This study demonstrated that newborns with meconium aspiration are not at greater risk for otitis media in the 1st year of life.