We measured plasma parameters of the prothrombotic state, namely thrombin-antithrombin III complex (TAT), fibrinopeptide A (FPA). D-dimer (DD), von Willebrand factor (vWF), tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA), beta-thromboglobulin (beta TG), platelet factor 4 (PF4) and serotonin (5HT) in a series of 51 adult patients with chronic uremia: 22 were on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) and 29 on conservative dietary treatment. Serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF) was determined as well. Uremics presented significantly higher levels of TAT, FPA, DD, vWF, TNF, beta TG and 5HT than normal controls. Patients on conservative treatment showed lower levels of TAT, DD, TNF and beta TG than patients on MHD. Our results provide evidence that a prothrombotic state exists in chronic uremia and that MHD patients have a higher degree of hypercoagulation. Both hemodialysis procedure and uremia-related factors are likely to contribute to the hemostatic derangement.