The initial evaluation, stabilization, and subsequent transport of the neurologically compromised child should take into account the pathophysiologic response of the CNS to a variety of injurious factors. Little can be done to avoid neuronal damage from the primary event. Secondary insults resulting from hypoxemia, ischemia, intracranial hypertension, and fluid shifts can and must be prevented to ensure maximum neuronal salvage, however. Maintenance of an adequate airway, breathing, and circulation assume an immediate and ongoing priority. Neuroresuscitation should be directed toward reversing alterations in cerebral metabolism, autoregulation, brain water, and ICP associated with individual pathologic states.