Activity of Yeast FLP Recombinase in Maize and Rice Protoplasts

Nucleic Acids Res. 1993 Feb 25;21(4):969-75. doi: 10.1093/nar/21.4.969.


We have demonstrated that a yeast FLP/FRT site-specific recombination system functions in maize and rice protoplasts. FLP recombinase activity was monitored by reactivation of beta-glucuronidase (GUS) expression from vectors containing the gusA gene inactivated by insertion of two FRTs (FLP recombination targets) and a 1.31 kb DNA fragment. The stimulation of GUS activity in protoplasts cotransformed with vectors containing FRT inactivated gusA gene and a chimeric FLP gene depended on both the expression of the FLP recombinase and the presence and structure of the FRT sites. The FLP enzyme could mediate inter- and intramolecular recombination in plant protoplasts. These results provide evidence that a yeast recombination system can function efficiently in plant cells, and that its performance can be manipulated by structural modification of the FRT sites.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Base Sequence
  • DNA Nucleotidyltransferases / genetics
  • DNA Nucleotidyltransferases / metabolism*
  • Models, Genetic
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Oryza / genetics*
  • Recombinant Proteins / metabolism
  • Recombination, Genetic*
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae / genetics
  • Zea mays / genetics*


  • Recombinant Proteins
  • DNA Nucleotidyltransferases
  • FLP recombinase