Over 54 months, 70 short stenoses of 63 shunts (32 Brescia-Cimino fistulas, 31 grafts) in 59 patients necessitated a first percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA). Restenosis led to 63 redilations in 38 lesions. Nine stents were inserted in seven grafts and two proximal veins in seven patients, the indication being that stenosis had recurred twice in 6 months. In three of these stenoses, five delayed intrastent redilations were necessary. Three previously dilated occluded grafts were recovered with local thrombolysis. Morbidity was 4.08%, with one immediate rupture, four delayed pseudoaneurysms (1-28 months), and two periprocedural bacteremias. Half (15 of 29) of graft stenoses and only 14% (four of 27) of Brescia-Cimino fistula stenoses had a mean restenosis interval of less than 6 months. The mean restenosis interval increased from 3.6 months +/- 0.5 (standard deviation) before stent placement to 15.2 months +/- 0.4 after stent placement (P < .001). Insertion of a stent can be advised when stenoses of graft venous anastomoses have recurred twice in less than 6 months. The combination of all interventional radiologic procedures allowed a significant improvement in secondary patency rates after PTA, with 82% at 1 year, 79% at 2 years, and 71% at 3 years.