To evaluate our system for elastically deforming a three-dimensional atlas to match anatomical brain images, six deformed versions of an atlas were generated. The deformed atlases were created by elastically mapping an anatomical brain atlas onto different MR brain image volumes. The mapping matches the edges of the ventricles and the surface of the brain; the resultant deformations are propagated through the atlas volume, deforming the remainder of the structures in the process. The atlas was then elastically matched to its deformed versions. The accuracy of the resultant matches was evaluated by determining the correspondence of 32 cortical and subcortical structures. The system on average matched the centroid of a structure to within 1 mm of its true position and fit a structure to within 11% of its true volume. The overlap between the matched and true structures, defined by the ratio between the volume of their intersection and the volume of their union, averaged 66%. When the gray-white interface was included for matching, the mean overlap improved to 78%; each structure was matched to within 0.6 mm of its true position and fit to within 6% of its true volume. Preliminary studies were also made to determine the effect of the compliance of the atlas on the resultant match.