Normal limits of knee angle in white children--genu varum and genu valgum

J Pediatr Orthop. Mar-Apr 1993;13(2):259-62.

Abstract

Knee angle and intermalleolar (IM) or intercondylar (IC) distance were measured in 196 white children aged 6 months to 11 years to establish normal limits of tibiofemoral angle. Children were maximally bowlegged at age 6 months and progressed toward approximately neutral knee angles (0 degree) by age 18 months. Greatest mean knock knee of 8 degrees was observed at age 4 years, followed by a gradual decrease to a mean of < 6 degrees at 11 years. Normal children aged 2-11 years had knock knee up to 12 degrees and intermalleolar distance up to 8 cm; the existence of bowlegs after age 2 years was abnormal.

MeSH terms

  • Age Factors
  • Ankle / growth & development
  • Ankle / physiology
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • European Continental Ancestry Group
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Knee / growth & development
  • Knee / physiology*
  • Male
  • Reference Values