Identification and characterization of adhesive factors of Clostridium difficile involved in adhesion to human colonic enterocyte-like Caco-2 and mucus-secreting HT29 cells in culture

Mol Microbiol. 1993 Feb;7(3):371-81. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2958.1993.tb01129.x.


Experiments reported in this communication showed that the highly toxinogenic Cd 79685, Cd 4784, and Wilkins Clostridium difficile strains and the moderately toxinogenic FD strain grown in the presence of blood adhere to polarized monolayers of two cultured human intestinal cell lines: the human colonic epithelial Caco-2 cells and the human mucus-secreting HT29-MTX cells. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the bacteria interacted with well-defined apical microvilli of differentiated Caco-2 cells and that the bacteria strongly bind to the mucus layer that entirely covers the surface of the HT29-MTX cells. The binding of C. difficile to Caco-2 cells developed in parallel with the differentiation features of the Caco-2 cells, suggesting that the protein(s) which constitute C. difficile-binding sites are differentiation-related brush border protein(s). To better define this interaction, we tentatively characterized the mechanism(s) of adhesion of C. difficile with adherence assays. It was shown that heating of C. difficile grown in the presence of blood enhanced the bacterial interaction with the brush border of the enterocyte-like Caco-2 cells and the human mucus-secreting HT29-MTX cells. A labile surface-associated component was involved in C. difficile adhesion since washes of C. difficile grown in the presence of blood without heat shock decreased adhesion. After heating, washes of C. difficile grown in the presence of blood did not modify adhesion. Analysis of surface-associated proteins of C. difficile subjected to different culture conditions was conducted. After growth of C. difficile Cd 79685, Cd 4784, FD and Wilkins strains in the presence of blood and heating, two predominant SDS-extractable proteins with molecular masses of 12 and 27 kDa were observed and two other proteins with masses of 48 and 31 kDa disappeared. Direct involvement of the 12 and 27 kDa surface-associated proteins in the adhesion of C. difficile strains was demonstrated by using rat polycolonal antibodies pAb 12 and pAb 27 directed against the 12 and 27 kDa proteins. Indeed, adhesion to Caco-2 cell monolayers of C. difficile strains grown in the presence of blood, without or with heat-shock, was blocked. Taken together, our results suggest that C. difficile may utilize blood components as adhesins to adhere to human intestinal cultured cells.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Antibodies, Bacterial / immunology
  • Bacterial Adhesion / physiology*
  • Bacterial Proteins / chemistry
  • Bacterial Proteins / immunology
  • Blood / metabolism
  • Cell Adhesion Molecules / immunology
  • Cell Adhesion Molecules / isolation & purification
  • Cell Differentiation / physiology
  • Cell Line
  • Cell Membrane / chemistry
  • Cell Membrane / immunology
  • Cell Polarity
  • Clostridioides difficile / chemistry
  • Clostridioides difficile / drug effects
  • Clostridioides difficile / physiology*
  • Clostridioides difficile / ultrastructure
  • Colon / microbiology
  • Epithelium / microbiology
  • Hot Temperature
  • Humans
  • Intestines / microbiology*
  • Intestines / ultrastructure
  • Membrane Proteins / immunology
  • Membrane Proteins / isolation & purification
  • Mucus / metabolism


  • Antibodies, Bacterial
  • Bacterial Proteins
  • Cell Adhesion Molecules
  • Membrane Proteins