We studied the history of sexually transmitted diseases in 283 nulliparous women diagnosed with infertility due to tubal adhesions or occlusion and 3,833 women admitted for delivery at seven collaborating hospitals. The adjusted risks of tubal infertility associated with the history of each sexually transmitted disease were estimated by the odds ratios obtained by multiple logistic regression. Women who reported prior infection with gonorrhea were at a significantly increased risk of tubal infertility (relative odds = 2.4, 95% confidence interval 1.3-4.4). In addition, the risk of tubal infertility was almost twice as high in women who recalled previous trichomoniasis compared with women with no such infection (relative odds = 1.9, 95% confidence interval 1.3-2.8). Furthermore, there was a trend of increasing risk with an increasing number of episodes of gonorrhea or trichomoniasis.