The neuropharmacological and neurochemical basis of place learning in the Morris water maze

Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1993 Jan-Apr;18(1):33-49. doi: 10.1016/0165-0173(93)90006-l.


The Morris water maze (MWM) offers several advantages over other methods of studying the neurochemical basis of learning and memory, particularly with respect to its ability to dissociate deficits in memory formation from deficits in sensory, motor, motivational and retrieval processes. The contributions of nearly all of the major neurotransmitter systems have been investigated and consistent patterns have emerged. Normal function in glutamatergic and cholinergic systems is necessary for spatial learning, as blockade of NMDA receptors and cholinergic hypofunction prevents spatial learning but does not impair recall. Peptides such as adrenal and sex hormones and somatostatin may also be necessary for spatial learning. In contrast, activity in either GABAergic or opioidergic systems impairs spatial learning, though by quite different means. GABAergic activity prevents memory function, whereas opioidergic activity reduces motivation. Normal monoaminergic activity is necessary for normal performance in the MWM, but not for spatial learning per se. However, noradrenergic and serotonergic systems may enhance cholinergic-mediated mnemonic processes. Further research into the relative contributions of different receptor subtypes as well as interactions between neurochemical systems should provide significant advances in our understanding of the neural basis of learning and memory in mammals.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Brain / metabolism*
  • Catecholamines / physiology
  • Humans
  • Learning / physiology*
  • Motor Activity / physiology*
  • Serotonin / physiology
  • Space Perception / physiology*


  • Catecholamines
  • Serotonin