The API Uriscreen is a rapid urine-screening test based on the detection of catalase activity present in somatic cells and in many of the bacteria commonly causing urinary tract infections. Of 487 routine, outpatient urine specimens processed by conventional quantitative culture, API Uriscreen, Vitek UID-3 panel, and a leukocyte esterase-nitrite strip, 142 had no growth. Of 336 urine specimens with > or = 10(3) colony-forming units (CFU)/ml, 79 were considered to be indicative of possible or probable urinary tract infection (Cumitech 2A). The sensitivity and specificity of the API Uriscreen for the detection of bacteriuria at > or = 10(5) CFU/ml were 62% and 85%, those of the leukocyte esterase-nitrite strip was 61% and 82%, those of the Vitek UID-3 panel were 91% and 66%. When bacteriurias were classified into possibly or probably indicative of urinary tract infection, the sensitivity and specificity of the API Uriscreen at > or = 10(5) CFU/ml were 87% and 78%, those of the leukocyte esterase-nitrite were 84% and 76%, those of the Vitek UID-3 were 93% and 55%. In this study, we consider the API Uriscreen did not have significant advantages over the leukocyte esterase-nitrite strip.