Psychological effects of MDE in normal subjects. Are entactogens a new class of psychoactive agents?

Neuropsychopharmacology. 1993 Feb;8(2):171-6. doi: 10.1038/npp.1993.19.


The so-called entactogens 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ([MDMA] also known as "Ecstasy," or "Adam") and its analog 3,4-methylenedioxyethamphetamine ([MDE] also known as "Eve") exert similar psychotropic effects in humans. Two double-blind placebo-controlled psychometric studies with normal control subjects were conducted. Placebo or MDE (140 mg) was administered orally to eight male volunteers at 1:30 P.M. and to six subjects (3 male, 3 female) at 11 P.M. Psychologic tests and clinical ratings were performed 1 hour before the administration of the drugs, as well as 2, 5, and 24 hours after drug intake and 7 days thereafter in the first study. In the second study, measures were taken at times -1, +8.5, +24 hours, and +7 days. The majority of the psychotropic effects resembled those that have already been described in anecdotal reports. The substance produced a partially controllable state of enhanced insight, empathy, and peaceful feelings. All subjects displayed a general stimulation with increased psychomotor drive, logorrhea, and facilitation of communication. One of the fourteen volunteers developed a toxic psychosis. One volunteer displayed a dysphoric reaction, one suffered from episodes of anxiety for some days after the experiment. The findings support the hypothesis that MDMA and MDE represent a novel pharmacologic class.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • 3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine / analogs & derivatives*
  • 3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine / pharmacology
  • Adult
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mental Disorders / chemically induced*
  • Mental Disorders / psychology
  • Middle Aged
  • Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
  • Psychological Tests
  • Reference Values


  • 3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine
  • 3,4-methylenedioxyethamphetamine