Circadian clock functions localized in xenopus retinal photoreceptors

Neuron. 1993 Apr;10(4):573-7. doi: 10.1016/0896-6273(93)90160-s.


A circadian oscillator that regulates visual function is located somewhere within the vertebrate eye. To determine whether circadian rhythmicity is generated by retinal photoreceptors, we isolated and cultured photoreceptor layers from Xenopus retina. On average, 94% of the viable cells in these preparations were rod or cone photoreceptors. Photoreceptor layers produced melatonin rhythmically, with an average period of 24.3 hr, in constant darkness. The phase of the melatonin rhythm was reset by in vitro exposure of the photoreceptor layers to cycles of either light or quinpirole, a D2 dopamine receptor agonist. These data indicate that other parts of the eye are not necessary for generation or entrainment of retinal circadian melatonin rhythms and suggest that rod and/or cone photoreceptors are circadian clock cells.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Circadian Rhythm*
  • Culture Techniques
  • Darkness
  • Male
  • Melatonin / metabolism
  • Periodicity
  • Photoreceptor Cells / metabolism
  • Photoreceptor Cells / physiology*
  • Retina / metabolism
  • Retina / physiology*
  • Time Factors
  • Xenopus / physiology*


  • Melatonin