Clinical experience suggests that infants delivered by caesarean section have difficulties maintaining normal body temperature during the first hours after birth. To test this hypothesis, body and skin temperatures were measured and compared in healthy full-term caesarean section and vaginally delivered newborn infants. The babies were studied during the first 90 min after birth. Axillary and skin temperatures were significantly higher in the vaginally delivered group than in infants delivered by caesarean section. Infants born by non-elective caesarean section were slightly warmer during the first 90 min after birth compared to infants born by elective caesarean section. There were no significant differences in temperatures between infants cared for in a cot as compared to those cared for in an incubator. An incubator creates a physical barrier between babies and parents and incubator care might cause parental anxiety. Thus the routine of putting healthy, full-term caesarean section infants in incubators can be abandoned from a thermoregulatory point of view.