Relationship between ankle muscle and joint kinetics during the stance phase of locomotion in the cat

J Biomech. Apr-May 1993;26(4-5):465-83. doi: 10.1016/0021-9290(93)90010-c.


The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between internal force production in selected skeletal muscles and the externally calculated joint moment during overground locomotion in the adult cat. Hindlimb segments were modelled as a linked system of rigid bodies and a generalized muscle moment (GMM), the sum over all active and passive tissues acting about the joint, was calculated using principles of inverse dynamics. Moments produced by individual muscles were calculated using tendon transducers implanted in freely moving cats and muscle moment arm information. Results indicated that the externally measured variables of peak ground reaction force and joint position were equally important to the determination of peak ankle GMM. Examination of peak moments revealed that increases in peak ankle GMM were met by increases in medial (MG) and lateral (LG) gastrocnemius output. Peak soleus (SOL) moments did not change significantly as a function of peak ankle GMM. The role of the plantaris (PLT) was less clear, with peak moments increasing significantly as a function of peak ankle GMM in one cat. All four ankle extensors were important to the attainment of peak ankle GMM early in stance. Subsequently, SOL and PLT contributed substantially to the ankle GMM throughout stance, LG moments declined to near zero, soon after peak ankle GMM; and MG moments demonstrated a substantial but more gradual decline. The relative contributions of these individual muscles to the ankle GMM were supported by their respective architecture, uniarticular versus multiarticular function, and physiological profiles.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Ankle Joint / physiology*
  • Cats
  • Foot / physiology
  • Hindlimb
  • Hip / physiology
  • Knee Joint / physiology
  • Locomotion / physiology*
  • Male
  • Metatarsal Bones / physiology
  • Movement
  • Muscle Contraction / physiology
  • Muscles / physiology*
  • Posture / physiology
  • Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted
  • Stress, Mechanical
  • Tarsus, Animal / physiology*
  • Tendons / physiology
  • Tibia / physiology