Defining the critical gene expression changes associated with expression and suppression of the tumorigenic and metastatic phenotype in Ha-ras-transformed cloned rat embryo fibroblast cells

Oncogene. 1993 May;8(5):1211-9.


Carcinogenesis requires a complex series of genetic changes often involving multiple oncogenes and the inactivation of multiple tumor-suppressor genes. We presently examined the effect of the Krev-1 tumor-suppressor gene on the tumorigenic and metastatic potential of Ha-ras-transformed cloned rat embryo fibroblast (CREF) cells. Ha-ras-transformed CREF cells are morphologically transformed and anchorage independent; produce reduced levels of nm23-H1 (a putative metastasis-suppressor gene product) and TIMP-1 (tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1) transcripts and mRNA compared with CREF cells; produce increased levels of cripto, 94-kDa gelatinase/type IV collagenase (94-kDa GEL), osteopontin (OPN) and transin/stromelysin transcripts and mRNA compared with CREF cells; and are tumorigenic and metastatic in both nude mice and syngeneic rats. Ha-ras-transformed CREF cells coexpressing the Krev-1 gene display a reversion in cellular phenotype and gene expression to that of untransformed CREF cells. However, Ha-ras/Krev-1-coexpressing CREF cells retain, albeit with extended latency periods, both tumorigenic and metastatic potential that is not related directly to the final level of Ha-ras or Krev-1 mRNA or the Ha-ras p21 transforming protein. Development of metastatic potential is, however, directly correlated with a reduction in nm23-H1 and TIMP-1 transcription and mRNA levels and an enhanced expression of cripto, 94-kDa GEL, osteopontin and transin. In contrast, expression of additional tumor-suppressor genes, such as the RB gene and p53, or genes associated with tumorigenesis in other model systems, such as major excreted glycoprotein (MEP), 72-kDa gelatinase/type IV collagenase (72-kDa GEL), fibronectin (FIB), tenascin and intracellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) is not altered in a consistent manner during in vitro transformation suppression or escape from tumorigenic and metastatic suppression. These results indicate that Krev-1 suppression of the Ha-ras-transformed/oncogenic phenotype is associated with a distinct program of gene expression changes manifested by altered rates of transcription and steady-state mRNA levels of specific oncogenic-suppressing and oncogenic-inducing genes. These data support a model of Ha-ras-induced metastasis in CREF cells that involves a direct modulation in the expression/suppression of specific combinations of oncogenic-suppressor genes and metastasis-promoting genes that are regulated coordinately in the process of tumor progression.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Base Sequence
  • Cell Line, Transformed
  • Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / genetics*
  • Clone Cells
  • Embryo, Mammalian
  • Fibroblasts
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic*
  • Genes, Tumor Suppressor*
  • Genes, ras*
  • Mice
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Neoplasm Metastasis*
  • RNA, Messenger / analysis
  • Rats
  • Transcription, Genetic
  • Tumor Cells, Cultured


  • RNA, Messenger