1. NS-398 (N-[2-cyclohexyloxy-4-nitrophenyl] methanesulfonamide) is a new non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) with analgesic and antipyretic effects. 2. The anti-inflammatory potency of NS-398 in rat carrageenin-induced edema was as potent as that of indomethacin and 8 times more potent than diclofenac. In rat adjuvant arthritis, NS-398 showed a therapeutic effect comparable to that seen with loxoprofen but less than that seen with indomethacin and diclofenac. 3. The analgesic potency of NS-398 in rat adjuvant arthritic pain was much the same as that of indomethacin, and was about 3-5 times higher than that of diclofenac and loxoprofen. In the Randall-Selitto method in rats, NS-398 was 2-7 times as potent as loxoprofen, diclofenac and indomethacin. In acetic acid-induced writhing in mice, NS-398 was equipotent to indomethacin and diclofenac. 4. In LPS-induced fever in rats, NS-398 was 1.5-4.5 times as potent as loxoprofen and indomethacin, but less potent than diclofenac. 5. NS-398 produced little gastric ulceration in doses of up to 1000 mg/kg, while reference drugs produced distinct stomach lesions in doses of 10-30 mg/kg. 6. NS-398 inhibited prostaglandin (PG) endoperoxide synthase from sheep seminal vesicle microsomes less potent than that of ibuprofen.