Comparison of intraosseous, central, and peripheral routes of crystalloid infusion for resuscitation of hemorrhagic shock in a swine model

J Trauma. 1993 Mar;34(3):422-8. doi: 10.1097/00005373-199303000-00020.


Venous access is often a clinical dilemma in severely hypovolemic children. This study compares fluid resuscitation by central vein, peripheral vein, and the intraosseous route in a hemorrhagic shock model. Hampshire piglets were bled to a mean arterial pressure of 30 mm Hg. This level of shock was sustained for 30 minutes. Resuscitation was carried out with normal saline delivered at 50 mL/min by a manual pressure of 450-475 mm Hg over the ensuing 20 minutes. Bone marrow from two intraosseous-infused animals was harvested immediately after the study for histologic examination. The hemodynamic response to crystalloid resuscitation was comparable among the three groups. There was no significant difference in mean arterial pressure, central venous pressure, cardiac output, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, mixed venous oxygen saturation, or arterial oxygen saturation. Histologically, cellular washout and necrosis were found in bone marrow immediately adjacent to the intraosseous needle infusion site. For fixed-rate infusion, intraosseous crystalloid resuscitation is as efficacious as that delivered by peripheral or central venous routes in reversing hemorrhagic shock.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Bone Marrow / pathology
  • Catheterization*
  • Catheterization, Central Venous
  • Catheterization, Peripheral
  • Female
  • Hemodynamics
  • Infusions, Intraosseous*
  • Male
  • Necrosis
  • Pulmonary Wedge Pressure
  • Resuscitation / methods*
  • Shock, Hemorrhagic / pathology
  • Shock, Hemorrhagic / physiopathology
  • Shock, Hemorrhagic / therapy*
  • Sodium Chloride / administration & dosage*
  • Swine


  • Sodium Chloride