Toilet habits and continence in children: an opportunity sampling in search of normal parameters

J Urol. 1993 May;149(5):1087-90. doi: 10.1016/s0022-5347(17)36304-8.

Abstract

An opportunity sampling of 1,192 children regarding parameters of toilet training and elimination status was obtained by interview and questionnaire. Toilet training ages ranged from 0.75 to 5 years, with a mean of 2.4 +/- 0.6 years (standard deviation). Voiding frequency was inversely related to age; most children between 3 and 12 years old urinated 5 to 6 times per day. Influences of gender, urinary infections and parental recall were investigated. Nocturnal and diurnal enuresis was reported in 18% and 10% of our sample, respectively. Bowel movements per week ranged from 1 to 21, with a mean of 6.8 +/- 2.5.

MeSH terms

  • Age Factors
  • Child, Preschool
  • Defecation*
  • Enuresis / epidemiology
  • Female
  • Habits
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Male
  • Reference Values
  • Toilet Training
  • Urinary Tract Infections / epidemiology
  • Urination*