Candida species are an uncommon cause of infectious arthritis, although the frequency has increased during recent years. Three cases of septic arthritis caused by Candida species are reported, and the literature is reviewed. The first patient developed a popliteal cyst infected by Candida albicans after multiple intravenous antibiotic treatments. The second patient had acute myelogenous leukemia and experienced knee arthritis after chemotherapy, and the third suffered oligoarthritis after a second heart transplantation. All patients received treatment with a standard dose of intravenous amphotericin B. Responses were achieved only in the first two cases; the third patient died despite therapy. Thirty-six previously reported Candida arthritis cases are reviewed, and epidemiologic, diagnostic, therapeutic, and prognostic features are analyzed. Cases are divided into two categories: direct inoculation of fungus and hematogenously disseminated disease; these two categories are compared in terms of sex, age, pathogen species, treatment, and survival. Arthritis induced through direct inoculation of fungus is seen in older individuals, is more frequently produced by species other than C albicans (Candida parapsilosis especially), and has a better prognosis than arthritis caused by disseminated candidiasis. Arthritis can be resolved even in the persistence of the systemic disease. It is believed that the first case of Baker's cyst infected by C albicans and the first case of Candida arthritis in a heart transplant patient are reported here.