Bicycle helmet laws and educational campaigns: an evaluation of strategies to increase children's helmet use

Am J Public Health. 1993 May;83(5):667-74. doi: 10.2105/ajph.83.5.667.


Objectives: The passage of a mandatory bicycle helmet law for children in Howard County, Maryland, provided an opportunity to compare legislation and education as strategies to increase helmet use.

Methods: In 1991, a survey was mailed to fourth-, seventh-, and ninth-grade students attending a stratified sample of public schools in Howard County and in two similar suburban/rural counties without helmet laws.

Results: Of 7217 students surveyed, 3494 responded (48.4%). Self-reported helmet use in Howard County rose from 11% to 37% after the law and accompanying educational campaign went into effect. Helmet use changed from 8% to 13% in Montgomery County, where educational efforts were undertaken, and from 7% to 11% in Baltimore County, where helmet promotion activities were minimal. Predictors of helmet use included having friends who wore helmets, believing helmet laws are good, being in fourth grade, living in Howard County, and using seatbelts regularly.

Conclusions: Legislation combined with education appears to increase bicycle helmet use substantially more than does education alone. The Howard County law may be considered a successful model of a strategy to increase children's helmet use.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Bicycling / injuries
  • Bicycling / legislation & jurisprudence*
  • Child
  • Craniocerebral Trauma / prevention & control*
  • Female
  • Head Protective Devices / statistics & numerical data*
  • Health Education / methods*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Maryland
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Public Health
  • Sampling Studies
  • Surveys and Questionnaires