A cross-sectional study was carried out on a random sample of 2,216 schoolchildren 9 to 14 yr of age to determine the prevalence of exercise-induced airway narrowing (EIAN) in a Mediterranean town (Mataró). A complementary case-control study measured the association between EIAN and respiratory symptoms. A free-running test was performed during school time. Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) was measured at rest and at 2, 5, 10, and 15 min after exercise. A total of 136 of 2,056 satisfactory runs showed a decrease of PEFR equal to or higher than 15% at each of these times after exercise. Five more children developed wheezing during running and were considered to have EIAN. Prevalence of EIAN was 6.9% (95% CI = 5.9 to 7.9). Prevalence decreased progressively with age. No sex difference was found. In the case-control study a questionnaire of respiratory symptoms was applied to the mothers of hyperresponsive children, as well as to two matched control subjects for each case. Questionnaire analysis showed a strong association between EIAN and respiratory symptoms or rhinitis. Association with bronchitis before 2 yr of age and parental asthma was less but significant.