This research developed and determined the psychometric characteristics of a measure of self-efficacy expectations (a social cognitive theory construct) for the self-management of cystic fibrosis (CF). Items for the original instrument were sampled from 150 self-management performance objectives for CF that represented behaviors in eight domains of CF care, including aspects of medical care, coping, and communication. The instrument was administered to 199 parents of children and adolescents with CF from two CF centers. The findings support a multidimensional structure for self-efficacy consistent with the multiple types of behavior required for the management of a chronic illness such as CF. An alpha-factor analysis yielded solutions clearly reflecting five theorized aspects of self-management: medical judgment and communication, coping, family communication, compliance, and acceptance. The first factor of the caretaker's scale most closely represents the underlying conceptualization of self-management as requiring self-monitoring of health status and collaboration with the health care provider in making judgments about treatment. The unit weighted factors exhibited high internal consistencies (Cronbach's alpha-factors ranging from 0.73 to 0.88).