Children newly diagnosed with cancer have been documented to be at increased risk for difficulties in their return to school and ongoing positive social experiences. This article reviews the critical role of social support in helping children adjust to their illness and treatment. Social skills training for newly diagnosed children is presented as an important intervention strategy for increasing positive social interactions and overall psychosocial adjustment. A randomized, clinical research trial currently in progress that will evaluate the impact of social skills training on newly diagnosed children 5-13 years of age is delineated. The potentially positive impact of social skills training on the prevention of emotional problems and increased biologic survival are discussed.