The retroviral oncogene v-myb encodes a transcriptional activator which is responsible for the activation of the mim-1 gene in myelomonocytic cells transformed by v-myb. The mim-1 promoter contains several myb consensus binding sites and has previously been shown to be regulated directly by v-myb. Here we report that the mim-1 gene is activated synergistically by v-myb and different C/EBP transcription factors. We have cloned a chicken C/EBP-related gene that is highly expressed in myeloid cells and identified it as the chicken homolog of C/EBP beta. A dominant-negative variant of chicken C/EBP beta interferes with the v-myb induced activation of the mim-1 gene in these cells, suggesting that C/EBP beta or another C/EBP transcription factor is required for the activation of mim-1 by v-myb. We found that C/EBP beta and other C/EBP transcription factors confer to fibroblasts the ability to induce the mim-1 gene in the presence of v-myb. Finally we show that, in contrast to v-myb, c-myb synergizes with C/EBP transcription factors only at low concentrations of c-myb protein. Our results suggest a role for C/EBP beta, and possibly for other C/EBP transcription factors, in v-myb function and in myeloid-specific gene activation.