In synchronized rat or mouse cells infected with Moloney murine leukemia virus (MLV), integration of viral DNA and production of viral proteins occur only after the cells traverse mitosis. Integration is blocked when cells are prevented from progressing through mitosis. Viral nucleoprotein complexes isolated from arrested cells contain full-length viral DNA and can integrate this viral DNA in vitro, showing that the block to integration in arrested cells is not due to a lack of mature integration machinery. When infected cells traverse mitosis, there is a sharp increase in nuclear accumulation of viral DNA. The dependence of integration on mitosis may therefore be due to a requirement for mitosis and nuclear envelope breakdown for entry of the viral integration complex into the nucleus.