Effect of pyridostigmine pretreatment, HI-6 and Toxogonin treatment on rat tracheal smooth muscle response to cholinergic stimulation after organophosphorus inhalation exposure

Arch Toxicol. 1993;67(3):212-9. doi: 10.1007/BF01973310.


The ex vivo contraction response of the rat tracheal smooth muscle was examined after 10 min in vivo inhalation of soman and/or pretreatment with pyridostigmine and/or post-exposure treatment with HI-6 ([[[(4-aminocarbonyl)pyridinio]methoxy]methyl]-2[(hydroxy imino) methyl]pyridinium dichloride) or Toxogonin (1,1'-[oxybis-(methylene)]bis[4-[(hydroxyimino)methyl]-py rid inium] dichloride). In vivo pretreatment with pyridostigmine was achieved by subcutaneous (s.c.) implantation of an osmotic pump that delivered pyridostigmine continuously (0.01 mg/h) in the neck region of the rat 18 h before soman exposure. The ex vivo cholinergic tracheal smooth muscle response increased during the first 60 min after soman exposure in animals pretreated with pyridostigmine. The amplitude of the contraction response in pyridostigmine pretreated animals was about 60% of control, compared to 15% of control without pyridostigmine pretreatment. Pyridostigmine pretreatment also produced significant recovery of the total cholinesterase (ChE) activity in plasma, but not in trachea and lung. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of HI-6 or Toxogonin (50 mg/kg), immediately after 10 min inhalation exposure to soman, also significantly improved the ex vivo cholinergic contraction response of the trachea (decapitation 15 min after oxime administration). The recovery of the physiological response with Toxogonin was, however, not stable. HI-6 was superior to Toxogonin with respect to the initial airway contraction response, and the response increased up to a stable level not significantly different from control. There was no significant reactivation of the ChE activity after treatment with the oximes. Combination of pyridostigmine pretreatment and oxime treatment enhanced the recovery of the tracheal contraction response and the ChE activity in the trachea compared to treatment with oximes alone.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Inhalation
  • Animals
  • Cholinesterase Inhibitors / pharmacology
  • Cholinesterase Reactivators / pharmacology*
  • Electric Stimulation
  • Male
  • Muscle Contraction / drug effects*
  • Muscle, Smooth / drug effects*
  • Obidoxime Chloride / pharmacology*
  • Organophosphorus Compounds / administration & dosage
  • Organophosphorus Compounds / pharmacology*
  • Oximes
  • Pyridinium Compounds / pharmacology*
  • Pyridostigmine Bromide / pharmacology*
  • Rats
  • Rats, Wistar
  • Soman / administration & dosage
  • Soman / pharmacology
  • Trachea / drug effects


  • Cholinesterase Inhibitors
  • Cholinesterase Reactivators
  • Organophosphorus Compounds
  • Oximes
  • Pyridinium Compounds
  • Obidoxime Chloride
  • Soman
  • asoxime chloride
  • Pyridostigmine Bromide