During the treatment of patients with renal failure or renal transplants the most important consideration is to eliminate sources of infection before and after the treatment. Acute or chronic oral infections or bacteraemias resulting from dental procedures may cause serious complications in these patients who already have lowered host resistance caused by immunosuppressant therapy. In order to determine the latest concepts from some international transplantation centres relating to the importance of and the effect of infective sources in the oral cavity, a survey form was prepared which included several questions related to oral foci of infection and renal transplantations. Results obtained from 22 centres from 12 countries indicated that the majority of the centres included a dental examination in their routine protocol and required completion of any necessary dental treatment before transplantation. However, full agreement among all these centres on the necessity for dental examination as part of the protocol has not yet been reached.