Synthetic carotenoids as internal standards for plasma micronutrient analyses by high-performance liquid chromatography

J Chromatogr. 1993 Apr 21;614(1):43-57. doi: 10.1016/0378-4347(93)80222-p.


A method is described for the synthesis of new carotenoids by transesterification of ethyl-beta-apo-8'-carotenoate. The rate of transesterification was temperature-dependent with highest yields using primary alcohols. Reaction conditions were found avoiding Z isomerization. The structures of the new products were confirmed by ultraviolet, mass, 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The synthetic carotenoids were used as internal standards for reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analyses of lipid phase plasma micronutrients. Retention times for the trans-esterified products increased as a function of alcohol chain length allowing a choice of synthetic carotenoids for use as internal standards for carotenoid quantitation without interference with the detection of analytes during HPLC analysis.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Carotenoids / blood*
  • Carotenoids / chemical synthesis
  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  • Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
  • Humans
  • Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
  • Middle Aged
  • Molecular Structure
  • Reference Standards
  • Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet
  • Vitamin A / blood*
  • Vitamin E / blood*


  • Vitamin A
  • Vitamin E
  • Carotenoids