Sonography is the primary method used to image the fetal chest. Many significant congenital anomalies such as pleural effusion, congenital diaphragmatic hernia, cystic adenomatoid malformation, pulmonary sequestration, and congenital heart disease can be detected during early prenatal sonography. Fetal sonography also permits accurate assessment of the severity of these processes, allowing for parental counseling and optimal planning of postnatal care. After birth, sonography is the primary method for evaluating cardiac anatomy and diagnosing congenital heart disease. Sonography also serves as a useful adjunct to plain film radiology and other modalities in evaluation of the mediastinum, diaphragm, pleura, and chest wall.