Interventional radiologists receive nonuniform occupational radiation doses, with relatively high doses to the head and extremities and low doses to the trunk, which is protected by a lead apron. Twenty-eight interventional radiologists from 17 institutions wore thermoluminescent dosimeters over their collars and under their aprons for a 2-month period. The estimated annual radiation dose was converted to effective dose as suggested by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Effective dose is used to relate the risk associated with nonuniform dose to that associated with an equivalent uniform whole-body dose. The mean annual effective dose was 3.16 mSv (316 mrem), with a range of 0.37-10.1 mSv. The mean annual effective dose is approximately equal to the mean natural background dose of 3 mSv per year from radon and other natural sources and is only 6% of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements' recommended effective dose equivalent limit of 50 mSv per year. The annual radiation risk of fatal cancer would be less than one per 10,000 for almost the entire career of an interventional radiologist.